İş Hukuku Açısından İbra Sözleşmesinin Niteliği


2019-09-25 05:09:24

İş Hukuku Açısından İbra Sözleşmesinin Niteliği


Türk Borçlar Kanunu madde 420 hükmü ile ceza koşulu ve ibra başlığı altında hizmet sözleşmelerinde cezai şart ve ibraname konusu ele alınmıştır. İbra, borçluyu henüz borcu ifa etmeden borcundan kurtarmak hususunda borçluyla alacaklının anlaşması anlamına gelir. Başka bir ifade ile, tarafların aralarındaki mevcut bir borcu kısmen veya tamamen ortadan kaldırmaya ve bu suretle borçluyu borcundan kurtarmaya yönelik olarak anlaşmayı ifade eder. Bu çerçevede ibra ile borç, doğrudan doğruya ve kesin olarak ortadan kalkar. Türk Borçlar Kanunu ise m. 132 hükmü ile ibra kurumunu genel hükümler içinde açıkça düzenlemiştir. Buna göre «Borcu doğuran işlem, kanunen veya taraflarca belli bir şekle bağlı tutulmuş olsa bile borç, tarafların şekle bağlı olmaksızın yapacakları ibra sözleşmesiyle tamamen veya kısmen ortadan kaldırılabilir.» Uygulamada bazı zamanlarda alacaklının, alacağının geri kalan kısmından veya başka alacaklarından borçluyu kurtarmayı düşünmeksizin geniş kapsamlı olarak ‘ibraname’ adı altında belgeler imzaladığı görülmektedir. Bunların gerçekte tahsil edilen alacak miktarı için verilmiş olduğu göz önünde tutularak makbuz olarak değerlendirilmesi mümkündür.

İbra Nedir?

Türk Borçlar Kanunu genel hükümler düzenlemesinde (m. 132) ibra, alacağın kendisi üzerinde doğrudan etki doğurup var olan alacağı kısmen ya da tamamen ortadan kaldırmaktadır. İbranın alacak üzerinde doğrudan etki doğurması sebebiyle söz konusu hukuki işlem, bir tasarruf işlemidir. Bununla beraber alacak hakkından alacaklının tek taraflı feragati mümkün olmayıp, borçlunun ibrayı kabul etmesi gerekmektedir. O halde söz konusu hukuki işlem sözleşmesel nitelikte bir tasarruf işlemi olup tarafların bu konuda anlaşması gerekir. Görüldüğü gibi ibra, borcun sona ermesini sağlayan özel bir sona erme sebebidir bu çerçevede, borç ilişkisini değil, sadece münferit borcu sona erdirmektedir. Buna göre, borç ifa ile kendiliğinden sona ermemekte; borcun sona ermesi için, tarafların bunu sağlayacak ibra hususunda anlaşma yapmaları ve şüphesiz bu anlaşmanın güven teorisi uyarınca tarafların davranışlarına verilen anlamla uyumlu olması gerekmektedir. İbranın geçerliliği açısından tarafların hangi borcun sona erdirildiğine ilişkin iradelerinin anlaşılır olması yeterli olup, ayrıca ibra edilen alacağın ve miktarının belirlenmesi aranmamaktadır.

İlginizi çekebilir:  Ticari Davalarda Zorunlu Arabuluculuk

İş Hukuku Açısından İbra Sözleşmesi Nedir?

Belirtildiği gibi ibra, bir borcun ifa edilmeden sona ermesi olup ifa dışı özel bir sona erme nedenidir. İş Hukuku açısından da ibra, alacaklı konumundaki işçinin borçlu konumundaki işverene karşı sahip olduğu alacaklarının tamamını ya da bir kısmını ortadan kaldıran bir sözleşme olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bununla birlikte yargı kararlarında da belirtildiği üzere, işçi emeği karşılığı aldığı ücret ve diğer parasal hakları ile ailesinin ve kendisinin geçimini sağlamakta, dolayısıyla nedensiz yere tek geçim kaynağı olan ücret ve işçilik haklarından işvereni ibra etmesi kural olarak hayatın olağan akışına uymamaktadır. İş Hukuku uyarınca ibra sözleşmesi yapılabilmesi için de şüphesiz ibra edilecek alacağın doğmuş olması gerekmektedir. Yeni düzenleme öncesinde de ileride ortaya çıkabilecek alacakların ibranın konusu olamayacağı öğretide kabul edilmişti. Yani, ibraname ancak geçmişte doğmuş alacaklar için geçerlidir bu demektir ki, gelecekte oluşacak işçi alacakları açısından düzenlenemez. Belirtilmelidir ki; ibranamenin alacaklının ibra edilecek alacağını almadığı halde borçlunun borcundan kurtulmasına ilişkin bir tasarruf işlemi olması nedeniyle, ibranın geçerliliği için tarafların tasarruf ehliyeti ve yetkisi de bulunmalıdır.

İbranamenin Geçerlilik Koşulları Nelerdir?

  1. İbra sözleşmesi yazılı yapılmalıdır.
  2. İbra sözleşmesi iş sözleşmesinin sona ermesinden en az bir ay sonra yapılmış olmalıdır.
  3. İbra sözleşmesinde her bir alacak kalemi tür ve miktar olarak ayrı ayrı belirtilmelidir.
  4. İbra sözleşmesi sebebiyle yapılacak ödemeler tam olarak ve banka aracılığıyla yapılmak zorundadır.

İbra Sözleşmesi Nasıl Kurulur?

İbra sözleşmenin geçerlilik kazanması, alacaklı ve borçlu durumdaki kişilerin ya da onların temsilcilerinin iradelerinin birbirine yönelmesi ve ibra konusunda bu iradelerin uyuşmuş olmasını gerektirir. Bu nedenle, diğer sözleşmelerde olduğu gibi ibra sözleşmesinin yapılabilmesinde de icap ve kabulün varlığı aranır. İcapta bulunacak kişi, hukuki ilişkinin tarafı olmalıdır. Yani iş kazasına uğrayan işçi, ölmüş ise hak sahipleri ve tazminatla yükümlü olan işverendir. İlk bakışta alacaklı olan işçinin bu icabı yapacağı mantıklı bir çıkarım gibi görünmekte ise de, borçlu işverenin de bu icabı yapmasına bir engel yoktur. İcabın en doğal şekli sağlar arasında olmasıdır. Ancak bunun ölüme bağlı bir tasarruf yoluyla yapılması da mümkündür.




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